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An Irish sealer named Brien spared the life of the baby son of a native woman he had abducted, explaining, "as he had stolen the dam he would keep the cub.

Some Aboriginal children were sent to the Orphan School in Hobart. Some historians argue that European disease did not appear to be a serious factor until after Keith Windschuttle argues that while smallpox never reached Tasmania, respiratory diseases such as influenza , pneumonia and tuberculosis and the effects of venereal diseases devastated the Tasmanian Aboriginal population whose long isolation from contact with the mainland compromised their resistance to introduced disease.

The work of historian James Bonwick and anthropologist H. Ling Roth, both writing in the 19th century, also point to the significant role of epidemics and infertility without clear attribution of the sources of the diseases as having been introduced through contact with Europeans.

Bonwick, however, did note that Tasmanian Aboriginal women were infected with venereal diseases by Europeans. Introduced venereal disease not only directly caused deaths but, more insidiously, left a significant percentage of the population unable to reproduce.

Josephine Flood, archaeologist, wrote: "Venereal disease sterilised and chest complaints — influenza, pneumonia and tuberculosis — killed.

Bonwick, who lived in Tasmania, recorded a number of reports of the devastating effect of introduced disease including one report by a Doctor Story, a Quaker , who wrote: "After the women along with the tribe seemed to have had no children; but why I do not know.

Henry Ling Roth, an anthropologist, wrote: "Calder, who has gone more fully into the particulars of their illnesses, writes as follows Whole tribes some of which Robinson mentions by name as being in existence fifteen or twenty years before he went amongst them, and which probably never had a shot fired at them had absolutely and entirely vanished.

To the causes to which he attributes this strange wasting away I think infecundity , produced by the infidelity of the women to their husbands in the early times of the colony, may be safely added Robinson always enumerates the sexes of the individuals he took; Robinson recorded in his journals a number of comments regarding the Aboriginal Tasmanians' susceptibility to diseases, particularly respiratory diseases.

In he revisited the west coast of Tasmania, far from the settled regions, and wrote: "The numbers of Aborigines along the western coast have been considerably reduced since the time of my last visit [].

A mortality has raged amongst them which together with the severity of the season and other causes had rendered the paucity of their number very considerable.

Between and a pattern of guerilla warfare by the Aboriginal Tasmanians was identified by the colonists. Rapid pastoral expansion, a depletion of native game and an increase in the colony's population triggered Aboriginal resistance from onwards when it has been estimated by Lyndall Ryan that Aboriginal people remained in the settled districts.

Whereas settlers and stock keepers had previously provided rations to the Aboriginal people during their seasonal movements across the settled districts, and recognised this practice as some form of payment for trespass and loss of traditional hunting grounds, the new settlers and stock keepers were unwilling to maintain these arrangements and the Aboriginal people began to raid settlers' huts for food.

The official Government position was that Aboriginal people were blameless for any hostilities, but when Musquito was hanged in , a significant debate was generated which split the colonists along class lines.

The "higher grade" saw the hanging as a dangerous precedent and argued that Aboriginal people were only defending their land and should not be punished for doing so.

The "lower grade" of colonists wanted more Aboriginal people hanged to encourage a "conciliatory line of conduct.

In the Government gazette, which had formerly reported "retaliatory actions" by Aboriginal people, now reported "acts of atrocity" and for the first time used the terminology "Aborigine" instead of "native".

A newspaper reported that there were only two solutions to the problem: either they should be "hunted down like wild beasts and destroyed" or they should be removed from the settled districts.

The colonial Government assigned troops to drive them out. A Royal Proclamation in established military posts on the boundaries and a further proclamation declared martial law against the Aboriginal people.

Every dispatch from Governor Arthur to the Secretary of State during this period stressed that in every case where Aboriginal people had been killed it was colonists that initiated hostilities.

Though many Aboriginal deaths went unrecorded, the Cape Grim massacre in demonstrates the level of frontier violence towards Aboriginal Tasmanians.

The Black War of —32 and the Black Line of were turning points in the relationship with European settlers.

Even though many of the Aboriginal people managed to avoid capture during these events, they were shaken by the size of the campaigns against them, and this brought them to a position whereby they were willing to surrender to Robinson and move to Flinders Island.

European and Aboriginal casualties, including the Aboriginal residents who were captured, may be considered as reasonably accurate.

The figures for the Aboriginal population shot is likely a substantial undercount. In late Robinson brought the first 51 Aboriginals to a settlement on Flinders Island named The Lagoons, which turned out to be inadequate as it was exposed to gales, had little water and no land suitable for cultivation.

The Europeans were living on oatmeal and potatoes while the Aboriginal people, who detested oatmeal and refused to eat it, survived on potatoes and rice supplemented by mutton birds they caught.

Roth wrote: [42]. They were lodged at night in shelters or "breakwinds. They were twenty feet long by ten feet wide. In each of these from twenty to thirty blacks were lodged To savages accustomed to sleep naked in the open air beneath the rudest shelter, the change to close and heated dwellings tended to make them susceptible, as they had never been in their wild state, to chills from atmospheric changes, and was only too well calculated to induce those severe pulmonary diseases which were destined to prove so fatal to them.

The same may be said of the use of clothes At the settlement they were compelled to wear clothes, which they threw off when heated or when they found them troublesome, and when wetted by rain allowed them to dry on their bodies.

In the case of Tasmanians, as with other wild tribes accustomed to go naked, the use of clothes had a most mischievous effect on their health.

By January a further 44 captured Aboriginal residents had arrived and conflicts arose between the tribal groups. To defuse the situation, Sergeant Wight took the Big River group to Green island , where they were abandoned and he later decided to move the rest to Green Island as well.

Two weeks later Robinson arrived with Lieutenant Darling, the new commander for the station, and moved the Aboriginal people back to The Lagoons.

Darling ensured a supply of plentiful food and permitted "hunting excursions. Pea Jacket Point was renamed Civilisation Point but became more commonly known as Wybalenna, which in the Ben Lomond language meant 'black men's houses'.

Robinson befriended Truganini, learned some of the local language and in managed to persuade the remaining "full-blooded" people to move to the new settlement on Flinders Island, where he promised a modern and comfortable environment, and that they would be returned to their former homes on the Tasmanian mainland as soon as possible.

At the Wybalenna Aboriginal establishment on Flinders Island, described by historian Henry Reynolds as the "best equipped and most lavishly staffed Aboriginal institution in the Australian colonies in the nineteenth century", they were provided with housing, clothing, rations of food, the services of a doctor and educational facilities.

Convicts were assigned to build housing and do most of the work at the settlement including the growing of food in the vegetable gardens.

By the living conditions had deteriorated to the extent that in October Robinson personally took charge of Wybalenna, organising better food and improving the housing.

However, of the who arrived with Robinson, most died in the following 14 years from introduced disease and inadequate shelter. As a result of their loss of freedom, the birth rate was extremely low and few children survived infancy.

In , Governor Franklin appointed a board to inquire into the conditions at Wybalenna that rejected Robinson's claims regarding improved living conditions and found the settlement to be a failure.

The report was never released and the government continued to promote Wybalenna as a success in the treatment of Aboriginal people. According to the guards, the Aboriginal people developed "too much independence" by trying to continue their culture which they considered "recklessness" and "rank ingratitude.

Commenting in on Robinson's claims of success, anthropologist Henry Ling Roth wrote: [42]. While Robinson and others were doing their best to make them into a civilised people, the poor blacks had given up the struggle, and were solving the difficult problem by dying.

The very efforts made for their welfare only served to hasten on their inevitable doom. The white man's civilisation proved scarcely less fatal than the white man's musket.

The Oyster Cove people attracted contemporaneous international scientific interest from the s onwards, with many museums claiming body parts for their collections.

Scientists were interested in studying Aboriginal Tasmanians from a physical anthropology perspective, hoping to gain insights into the field of paleoanthropology.

For these reasons, they were interested in individual Aboriginal body parts and whole skeletons. Tasmanian Aboriginal skulls were particularly sought internationally for studies into craniofacial anthropometry.

Truganini herself entertained fears that her body might be exploited after her death and two years after her death her body was exhumed and sent to Melbourne for scientific study.

Her skeleton was then put up for public display in the Tasmanian Museum until , and was only lay to rest, by cremation, in However, many of these skeletons were obtained from Aboriginal "mummies" from graves or bodies of the murdered.

Amalie Dietrich for example became famous for delivering such specimens. Aboriginal people have considered the dispersal of body parts as being disrespectful, as a common aspect within Aboriginal belief systems is that a soul can only be at rest when laid in its homeland.

Body parts and ornaments are still being returned from collections today, with the Royal College of Surgeons of England returning samples of Truganini's skin and hair in , and the British Museum returning ashes to two descendants in During the 20th century, the absence of Aboriginal people of solely Aboriginal ancestry, and a general unawareness of the surviving populations, meant many non-Aboriginal people assumed they were extinct , after the death of Truganini in Since the mids Tasmanian Aboriginal activists such as Michael Mansell have sought to broaden awareness and identification of Aboriginal descent.

A dispute exists within the Tasmanian Aboriginal community, however, over what constitutes Aboriginality. Since splitting from the Lia Pootah in , the Palawa minority were given the power to decide who is of Tasmanian Aboriginal descent at the state level entitlement to government Aboriginal services.

Palawa recognise only descendants of the Bass Strait Island community as Aboriginal and do not consider as Aboriginal the Lia Pootah, who claim descent, based on oral traditions, from Tasmanian mainland Aboriginal communities.

This is strongly opposed by the Palawa and has drawn an angry reaction from some quarters, as some have claimed " spiritual connection" with Aboriginality distinct from, but not as important as the existence of a genetic link.

The Lia Pootah object to the current test used to prove Aboriginality as they believe it favours the Palawa, a DNA test would circumvent barriers to Lia Pootah recognition, or disprove their claims to Aboriginality.

An example given by Prof. Cassandra Pybus was the claim by the Huon and Channel Aboriginal people who had an oral history of descent from two Aboriginal women.

Research found that both were non-Aboriginal convict women. The Tasmanian Palawa Aboriginal community is making an effort to reconstruct and reintroduce a Tasmanian language, called palawa kani out of the various records on Tasmanian languages.

Other Tasmanian Aboriginal communities use words from traditional Tasmanian languages, according to the language area they were born or live in.

The social organisation of Aboriginal Tasmanians had at least two hierarchies: the domestic unit or family group and the social unit or clan - which had a self-defining name with 40 to 50 people.

It is contentious whether there was a larger political organisation, hitherto described as a "tribe" in the literature and by colonial observers , as there is no evidence in the historical literature of larger political entities above that of the clan.

Robinson, who gathered ethnographic data in the early s, described Aboriginal political groups at the clan level only.

Nevertheless, clans that shared a geographic region and language group are now usually classified by modern ethnographers, and the Palawa, as a nation.

Estimates made of the combined population of Aboriginal people of Tasmania, before European arrival in Tasmania, are in the range of 3, to 15, people.

It is speculated that early contacts with sealers before colonisation had resulted in an epidemic. The low rate of genetic drift indicates that Stockton's original maximum estimate is likely the lower boundary and, while not indicated by the archaeological record , a population as high as , can "not be rejected out of hand".

This is supported by carrying capacity data indicating greater resource productivity in Tasmania than the mainland. Aboriginal Tasmanians were primarily nomadic people who lived in adjoining territories, moving based on seasonal changes in food supplies such as seafood, land mammals and native vegetables and berries.

They socialised, intermarried and fought "wars" against other clans. According to Ryan, [60] the population of Tasmania was aligned into nine nations composed of six to fifteen clans each, with each clan comprising two to six extended family units who were relations.

Individual clans ranged over a defined nation boundary with elaborate rites of entry required of visitors. There were more than 60 clans before European colonisation, although only 48 have been located and associated with particular territories.

Ryan used Jones' work in her seminal history of Aboriginal Tasmanians [62] but Taylor discusses in his thesis how Jones' original work is uncited and possibly conjectural.

Given this, the clan boundaries and nomadic patterns discussed below should be taken with caution unless referenced from primary documents.

The Paredarerme was estimated to be the largest Tasmanian nation with ten clans totalling to people.

Relations with the North Midlands nation were mostly hostile, and evidence suggests that the Douglas-Apsley region may have been a dangerous borderland rarely visited Ferguson pg Generally, the clans of the Paredarerme ranged inland to the High Country for spring and summer and returned to the coast for autumn and winter, but not all people left their territory each year with some deciding to stay by the coast.

Migrations provided a varied diet with plentiful seafood, seals and birds on the coast, and good hunting for kangaroos, wallabies and possums inland.

The majority of camps were along river valleys, adjacent north facing hill slopes and on gentle slopes bordering a forest or marsh Brown The North East nation consisted of seven clans totalling around people.

They had good relations with the Ben Lomond nation - granted seasonal access to the resources of the north-east coast.

The Northern nation consisted of four clans totalling — people. They traded the ochre with nearby clanspeople.

They would spend part of the year in the country of the North West nation to hunt seals and collect shells from Robbins Island for necklaces.

The settlement was a failure, with the inland areas described as "wet, cold and soggy", while the coastal region was difficult to clear, as Superintendent Henry Hellyer noted the "forest [was] altogether unlike anything I have seen in the Island".

However, in a port was established at Emu Bay. In Tarerenorerer Eng:Walyer , a woman who had escaped from sealers, became the leader of the Emu Bay people and attacked the settlers with stolen weapons, the first recorded use of muskets by Aboriginal people.

The Big River nation numbered — people consisting of five clans. Little is known of their seasonal movements although it is believed that four of the five clans moved through Oyster Bay territory along the Derwent River to reach their coastal camps near Pitt Water.

The North Midlands nation occupied the Midland plains, a major geographical area formed in a horst and graben valley which was also subject to previous major freshwater lacustrine inundation.

The North Midlands nation was circumscribed by the geographical constraints of the Midlands valley. To the west the nation was bounded by the escarpment of the Great Western Tiers, to the north-east the boundaries are less certain; with the eastern Tamar appearing to have been occupied by the Letteremairrener as far east as Piper's River: where the Poremairrenerner clan of the North-east nation were resident.

Running south past the eastern bend of the South-Esk it appears that the North Midlands Nation held land to some extent along the south bank of the Esk, at least as far as Avoca and possibly as far as the natural boundary of the St Pauls River, beyond which the Oyster Bay nation were resident.

The North Midlands language is classified as "mairremenner" and was spoken by the Ben Lomond and North-east nations and also the Luggermairrenerpairer clan of the Central Highlands.

This language group is likely to be a derivation of three other Tasmanian languages. Three major national divisions are generally ascribed to the North Midlands nation although it is likely that more clans existed and Ryan asserts the possibility of another two clan territories.

In colonial times reports were made of clusters of huts, up to ten in number, in the Tamar valley and there are extensive archeological remains of occupation on both sides of the Tamar river and north coastal country.

Little is recorded of the toponymy of their country but some local placenames have survived and are likely to be of the "Nara" language group.

Little is known of specific sites of significance to the Letteremairrener, but contemporary Palawa assert the significance of the Cataract Gorge [78] [80] as a place of ceremony and significance.

Certainly, in , when a surviving Aboriginal "chief" was temporarily returned to Launceston from exile in Wybalenna, he requested to be taken to the Cataract Gorge and was described as being jubilant at return to the Gorge, followed with apparent lamentation at what had been lost to him.

The Letteremairrener had been recorded to have specific meeting places at Paterson's Plains near modern-day St Leonards [78] and groups as large as had been recorded in colonial times in this vicinity.

The Letteremairrener were among the first Aboriginal peoples to be affected by the impact of colonisation by the British as colonial occupation commenced at Port Dalrymple and progressed to Launceston, with settlers progressively occupying land up the Tamar valley.

By the early s the Letteremairrener had been involved in skirmishes with exploratory parties of colonials, in the second decade of that century they had reached some accommodation with the interlopers; and were observed practicing spear throwing near present-day Paterson Barracks and watching colonial women wash clothes at Cataract Gorge.

By the people of the Letteremairenner had largely disappeared from their homeland and the survivors were waging a desperate guerrilla war with colonial British, living a fringe existence in Launceston or living life on the margin at the peripheries of their traditional land.

By the Letteremairrenner had disappeared completely from the Tamar Valley and would eventually die in the squalor of Wybalenna or Oyster Cove.

The Panninher parn-in-her were known to colonial people as the Penny Royal Creek Tribe, named eponymously from the river that comes off the Western Tiers south of Drys Bluff which is now called the Liffey River.

The Panninher named the Liffey river tellerpanger and Drys Bluff, the mountain rearing above their homeland, was taytitkekitheker. Their territory broadly covered the north plains of the midlands from the west bank of the Tamar River across to what is now Evandale and terminating at the Tyerrernotepanner country around modern day Conara.

The Panninher also freely moved from the Tamar to the central highlands and brokered trade in ochre from the Toolumbunner mine to neighbouring clans.

Whilst sites of ritual significance to the Panninher are not known, the Panninher were known to frequent Native Point, on the South Esk River between modern day Perth and Evandale , where flint quarries were located and clans met for celebration.

The Panninher were affected early by settlement around Norfolk Plains and aggressive assertion of property rights by settlers at first hindered their hunting and migration through their country and, subsequently, led to outright hostility from both parties.

Captain Ritchie, an early settler near Perth, tolerated, or fostered, forays by his assigned men against the Panninher and this culminated in a massacre by settlers near modern-day Cressy.

The colonial settlers made little discrimination between Panninher and members of the "Stony Creek Tribe" and it is likely that the North Midlands nation had disintegrated and the amalgamated band was known under the overarching name of "Stony Creek Tribe" by this time.

This notwithstanding, it seems that the Panninher were resourceful enough to survive in some numbers until late in the Black War.

The Tyerrernotepanner Chera-noti-pana were known to colonial people as the Stony Creek Tribe, named eponymously from the small southern tributary of the South Esk at Llewellyn, west of modern-day Avoca.

The clan Tyerrernotepanner were centred at Campbell Town and were one of up to four clans in the south central Midlands area. The ethnographic and archaeological evidence describes areas of significance to the south central Midlands clans: modern day Lake Leake, Tooms Lake, Windfalls farm, Mt Morriston, Ross township [88] and the lacustrine regions of the midlands all show evidence of tool knapping, middens and records of hut construction consistent with occupation.

Lake Leake previously Kearney's Bogs , Campbell Town, Ellinthorpe Plains near modern day Auburn and Tooms Lake were described as "resorts of the natives" by settlers and showed substantial evidence of seasonal occupation.

The clan divisions of the southern central Midlands are suggested below. Caution must be exercised as to the provenance of the names and the complete accuracy of attributing discrete geographical regions.

The Tyerrernotepanner are described consistently in contemporary records as a "fierce tribe" and the records describe consistent and concerted violence by the Tyerrernotepanner during the Black War.

The Tyeerrernotepanner, along with clansmen from other remnant tribes, conducted raids across the midlands during the Black War and, until "conciliated" by Robinson, were the subject of fearful reminiscence by colonial people.

The Ben Lomond nation consisted of at least three clans totalling — people. They occupied the km2 of country surrounding the Ben Lomond plateau.

Three clan names are known but their locations are somewhat conjectural - the clans were recorded as Plangermaireener, Plindermairhemener and Tonenerweenerlarmenne.

The Plangermaireener clan is recorded as variously inhabiting the south-east aspect of the Ben Lomond region and also has been associated with the Oyster Bay or Cape Portland Clans to the east - indeed the chief Mannalargenna is variously described as a chief of the Oyster Bay, Cape Portland and Ben Lomond nations.

The Plindermairhemener are recorded in association with the south and south-western aspects of the region [92] [66] [96] [97] and the location of the Tonenerweenerlarmenne is uncertain, but were probably centred in the remaining Ben Lomond nation territory from White Hills to the headwaters of the North and South-Esk rivers or the upper South-Esk Valley.

It is plausible that when Robinson was writing in the remnant peoples of the Ben Lomond nation had federated with that of the Panninher and this was the provenance of the conjoined title.

The clans of the Ben Lomond nation were nomadic, and the Aboriginal residents hunted along the valleys of the South Esk and North Esk rivers, their tributaries and the highlands to the northeast; as well as making forays to the plateau in summer.

There are records of Aboriginal huts or dwellings around the foothills of Stacks Bluff and around the headwaters of the South Esk River near modern-day Mathinna.

Batman further describes the relationship between the clans of the Ben Lomond nation and the North East nation:. The North West nation numbered between and people at time of contact with Europeans and had at least eight clans.

First explored by Europeans in , the region was considered inhospitable and only lightly settled, although it suffered a high rate of Aboriginal dispossession and killings.

Risdon Cove, the first Tasmanian settlement, was located in south-east country. There is eyewitness evidence that the South East nation may have consisted of up to ten clans, totalling around people.

However, only four groups totalling — people were officially recorded as the main source by Robinson, whose journals begin in By this time, Europeans had settled in most of the South East tribe's country, with the country dispossessed and food resources depleted.

Their country contained the most important silcrete , chert and quartzite mines in Tasmania. The first two European towns built on the island were named Lunawanna and Alonnah, and most of the island's landmarks are named after Nuenonne people.

The island was the source of the sandstone used to build many of Melbourne 's buildings, such as the Post Office and Parliament House.

Tasmanian Aboriginal culture is one of the world's most enduring. Aboriginal culture was disrupted severely in the 19th century after dispossession of land and incarceration of Aboriginal people on Wybalenna and Oyster Cove.

Much traditional knowledge has irrevocably disappeared and what remains has been nurtured over several generations starting with the Aboriginal wives of sealers on the Furneaux Islands.

But, as the Aboriginal writer Greg Lehman states, "Aboriginal culture is not past tense. Contemporary accounts of the ceremonial and cultural life of the Tasmanian Aboriginal people are very limited.

There were no observers trained in the social sciences after the French expeditions in the 18th century had made formal study of Tasmanian Aboriginal culture.

Moreover, those who wrote most comprehensively of Aboriginal life in the 19th century did so after colonial contact, and the ensuing violence and dislocation, had irrevocably altered traditional Aboriginal culture.

Those that most closely observed Aboriginal cultural practices either did not write accounts of what they observed or, if they did, observed culture through the ethnocentric lens of religious and proselytising 19th century European men.

The mythology of the Aboriginal Tasmanians appears to be complex and possibly specific to each clan group. One of their creation myths refers to two creator deities, Moinee and Droemerdene; the children of Parnuen, the sun, and Vena, the moon.

Moinee appears as the primeval creator, forming the land and rivers of Tasmania and fashioning the first man, Parlevar - embodied from a spirit residing in the ground.

This form was similar to a kangaroo , and Aboriginal people consequently take the kangaroo as a totem. Droemerdene appears as the star Canopus who helped the first men to change from their kangaroo-like form.

He removed their tails and fashioned their knee joints "so that they could rest" and thus man achieved differentiation form the kangaroo.

Moinee fought with his brother Droemerdene, and many "devils", after Droemerdene changed the shape of the first men and Moinee was finally hurled to his death from the sky to take form as a standing stone at Cox Bight.

Droemerdene subsequently fell into the sea at Louisa Bay. Tasmanian Aboriginal mythology also records in their oral history that the first men emigrated by land from a far-off country and the land was subsequently flooded - an echo of the Tasmanian people's migration from mainland Australia to then peninsular Tasmania, and the submergence of the land bridge after the last ice age.

Associate Professor Verity Cleland. Picture: Supplied. Parents are being asked to provide information that could be used to help young Tasmanians pursue active lifestyles.

Outdoor Education teacher and mountain biking coach Lauren Loz Stranger said working in a high school she saw girls opting out of participating in action sports.

Ms Stranger took up mountain biking six years ago because it was an easily accessible activity to do all year round.

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