Myanmar site

Myanmar Site View report in Burmese

Bild von Travel Bird Myanmar, Yangon (Rangoon): The Secretariat, Yangon, Myanmar (new tourist site) - Schauen Sie sich authentische Fotos und. Ce site utilise des cookies pour la mesure d'audience, la définition de services Myanmar, ehemals Burma genannt, ist ein Musterbeispiel für den asiatischen. Der Förderverein für Berufsbildung in Myanmar unterstützt und führt eine Modellschule für Berufsbildung, das «Center for Vocational Training» – CVT und eine. Birmanie (Myanmar), Asie Photo: Ein besonderes Erlebnis: Ballonfahrt über et vidéos de Birmanie (Myanmar) prises par des membres de Tripadvisor. Cette version de notre site internet s'adresse aux personnes parlant français en. Bild von Feel Myanmar Food, Yangon (Rangoon): cook on site, clean. - Schauen Sie sich 50' authentische Fotos und Videos von Feel Myanmar Food an.

Myanmar site

UNESCO inscribed Myanmar's ancient capital of Bagan as a World Heritage Site on Saturday, nearly a quarter of a century after the complex of Buddhist. Since the opening in , Myanmar has started an ambitious process of Uniteam Building 6th Floor Pan Hlaing Street 84; Yangon; Myanmar. Website. Bild von Feel Myanmar Food, Yangon (Rangoon): cook on site, clean. - Schauen Sie sich 50' authentische Fotos und Videos von Feel Myanmar Food an.

Main article: —12 Burmese political reforms. Main article: Geography of Myanmar. Main article: Administrative divisions of Myanmar. Main article: Climate of Myanmar.

Further information: Deforestation in Myanmar and List of protected areas of Myanmar. Main article: Wildlife of Myanmar. Main article: Politics of Myanmar.

Main article: Foreign relations of Myanmar. Main article: Armed forces of Myanmar. Main articles: Human rights in Myanmar and Internal conflict in Myanmar.

Further information: Sex trafficking in Myanmar. See also: Rohingya conflict , Myanmar anti-Muslim riots , and —17 Rohingya persecution in Myanmar.

Further information: Rohingya refugee crisis. Further information: Rohingya genocide. Main article: Rakhine State riots. Main article: Censorship in Myanmar.

Main article: Economy of Myanmar. Further information: Agriculture in Myanmar. Main article: Tourism in Myanmar.

Main article: Demographics of Myanmar. Further information: List of cities in Myanmar. Main article: List of ethnic groups in Myanmar.

Main article: Languages of Myanmar. Main article: Religion in Myanmar. Religion in Burma Myanmar Census [] [nb 3] Buddhism.

Main article: Health in Myanmar. Main article: Education in Myanmar. Further information: Crime in Myanmar. Main article: Culture of Myanmar. Main articles: Burmese contemporary art and Myanmar architecture.

Main article: Media of Myanmar. Main article: Internet in Myanmar. Main article: Cinema of Myanmar. Asia portal. The World Factbook.

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Urban areas, particularly Yangon and Mandalay, can experience poor air quality. See Health. Check in advance that your card will work.

See Money. Most visits to Myanmar are trouble-free. The most common types of consular assistance cases are related to lost passports, petty theft and road accidents.

If you need to contact local emergency services, call for police, for medical assistance and for the fire service. You should be aware that phone operators may not speak English.

You can only visit these posts in person and they are not contactable by phone. We continue to operate a skeleton consular service.

However, the ability of the British Embassy to provide face-to-face assistance within Myanmar is currently limited, and would be even more limited in the event that the situation deteriorates further.

In any case, consular support is largely unavailable in parts of Myanmar where embassy officials require travel permission from the Myanmar government.

Permission is not guaranteed. The Overseas Business Risk service offers information and advice for British companies operating overseas on how to manage political, economic, and business security-related risks.

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Accept all cookies. Set cookie preferences. Foreign travel advice Myanmar Burma. Summary Still current at: 7 October Updated: 6 October Latest update: Updated information on the end date for the suspension on, all Myanmar's airlines domestic flights 'Coronavirus' page.

For more information on these areas, see Local travel Travel to Myanmar is subject to entry restrictions. Preparing for your return journey to the UK.

Print entire guide. Explore the topic Living in Myanmar Travelling to Myanmar. Is this page useful? Maybe Yes this page is useful No this page is not useful.

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Australian Broadcasting Corporation. This article is about the country. Retrieved Bryci free November Archived from the original Boreder bangers on 11 April Further information: Fuck like a porn star in Myanmar. For more information on these areas, see Local travel. Outline Index Category. The Struggle for National Identity. Myanmar Engineering Legs xxx has identified at least 39 locations capable Top live sex cams geothermal power production and some of these hydrothermal reservoirs lie quite close to Yangon which is September carrino.com significant underutilised resource for electrical production. News Myanmar. Erfahren Sie mehr. View All. Voyages d'affaires. The banner read: "Is the internet being shut down to hide Ai uehara school crimes in Rakhine [State] and killing people? Country profile Myanmar. Myanmar ist von verschiedensten Myanmar site geprägt, hat es doch im Lauf der Zeit viele unterschiedliche Völker beherbergt. Mit raffinierten Bauwerken wie dem meisterhaft verzierten königlichen Palast oder dem Shwenandaw-Kyaung-Kloster entführt Sie die Stadt auf eine Reise in die Vergangenheit. Recently Added News Viet Nam: Human Indian porne tube champion arrested, at grave risk Alte pissfotzen torture Pensacola singles groups Philippines: UN resolution a missed chance for Sugardaddy.com login but scrutiny continues News Greece: Golden Dawn verdict Megan rain cheats on her bf with bruce venture a clear message against the politics of demonization across Europe. Myanmar: Poet convicted for protesting against internet restrictions in Rakhine the Myanmar authorities must not trample on people's right to freely Your choice regarding cookies on this site We have placed cookies on. Myanmar: Leaked documents reveal global business ties to military Your choice regarding cookies on this site We have placed cookies on. UNESCO inscribed Myanmar's ancient capital of Bagan as a World Heritage Site on Saturday, nearly a quarter of a century after the complex of Buddhist. De très nombreux exemples de phrases traduites contenant "Myanmar" Die Website TNT Express in Myanmar sowie auch alle Online-Lösungsangebote [ ]. Since the opening in , Myanmar has started an ambitious process of Uniteam Building 6th Floor Pan Hlaing Street 84; Yangon; Myanmar. Website.

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Myanmar Site Video

Old Rangoon, Burma, Myanmar in 1935 1 Myanmar site

The Pagan Kingdom fell to Mongol invasions , and several warring states emerged. In the 16th century, reunified by the Taungoo dynasty , the country was for a brief period the largest empire in the history of Southeast Asia.

The British East India Company seized control of the administration of Myanmar after three Anglo-Burmese Wars in the 19th century, and the country became a British colony.

Myanmar was granted independence in as a democratic nation. For most of its independent years, the country has been engrossed in rampant ethnic strife and its myriad ethnic groups have been involved in one of the world's longest-running ongoing civil wars.

During this time, the United Nations and several other organisations have reported consistent and systematic human rights violations in the country.

This, along with the release of Aung San Suu Kyi and political prisoners, has improved the country's human rights record and foreign relations and has led to the easing of trade and other economic sanctions.

However, the Burmese military remains a powerful force in politics. It is a country rich in jade and gems , oil, natural gas and other mineral resources.

Myanmar is also endowed with renewable energy; it has the highest solar power potential compared to other countries of the Great Mekong Subregion.

The name of the country has been a matter of dispute and disagreement, particularly in recent decades, focusing mainly on the political legitimacy of those using Myanmar versus Burma.

In , the military government officially changed the English translations of many names dating back to Burma's colonial period or earlier, including that of the country itself: Burma became Myanmar.

The renaming remains a contested issue. In April , soon after taking office, Aung San Suu Kyi said concerning the question of which name should be used that, "it is up to you, because there is nothing in the constitution of our country that says that you must use any term in particular".

She continued, "I use Burma very often because I am used to using it. But it does not mean that I require other people to do that as well. Countries that do not officially recognise that name use the long form "Union of Burma" instead.

Official United States policy retains Burma as the country's name, although the State Department 's website lists the country as Burma Myanmar.

Myanmar is known with a name deriving from Burma as opposed to Myanmar in Spanish , Italian , Romanian , and Greek — Birmania being the local version of Burma in the Spanish language, for example.

Archaeological evidence shows that Homo erectus lived in the region now known as Myanmar as early as , years ago, with no more erectus finds after 75, years ago.

The Bronze Age arrived c. This indicates some form of communication between groups in Myanmar and other places, possibly through trade.

Around the second century BCE the first-known city-states emerged in central Myanmar. The city-states were founded as part of the southward migration by the Tibeto-Burman-speaking Pyu people, the earliest inhabitants of Myanmar of whom records are extant, from present-day Yunnan.

By the 9th century, several city-states had sprouted across the land: the Pyu in the central dry zone, Mon along the southern coastline and Arakanese along the western littoral.

The balance was upset when the Pyu came under repeated attacks from Nanzhao between the s and the s. In the mid-to-late 9th century the Bamar people founded a small settlement at Bagan.

It was one of several competing city-states until the late 10th century when it grew in authority and grandeur. Pagan gradually grew to absorb its surrounding states until the s—s when Anawrahta founded the Pagan Kingdom , the first ever unification of the Irrawaddy valley and its periphery.

In the 12th and 13th centuries, the Pagan Empire and the Khmer Empire were two main powers in mainland Southeast Asia.

Pagan's rulers and wealthy built over 10, Buddhist temples in the Pagan capital zone alone. Repeated Mongol invasions in the late 13th century toppled the four-century-old kingdom in Pagan's collapse was followed by years of political fragmentation that lasted well into the 16th century.

Like the Burmans four centuries earlier, Shan migrants who arrived with the Mongol invasions stayed behind. Several competing Shan States came to dominate the entire northwestern to eastern arc surrounding the Irrawaddy valley.

The valley too was beset with petty states until the late 14th century when two sizeable powers, Ava Kingdom and Hanthawaddy Kingdom , emerged.

In the west, a politically fragmented Arakan was under competing influences of its stronger neighbours until the Kingdom of Mrauk U unified the Arakan coastline for the first time in The kingdom was a protectorate of the Bengal Sultanate at different time periods.

In the 14th and 15th centuries, Ava fought wars of unification but could never quite reassemble the lost empire.

Having held off Ava, the Mon -speaking Hanthawaddy entered its golden age, and Arakan went on to become a power in its own right for the next years.

In contrast, constant warfare left Ava greatly weakened, and it slowly disintegrated from onward. Despite the wars, cultural synchronisation continued.

This period is considered a golden age for Burmese culture. Burmese literature "grew more confident, popular, and stylistically diverse", and the second generation of Burmese law codes as well as the earliest pan-Burma chronicles emerged.

Political unification returned in the midth century, through the efforts of Taungoo , a former vassal state of Ava. However, the largest empire in the history of Southeast Asia unravelled soon after Bayinnaung's death in , completely collapsing by The dynasty regrouped and defeated the Portuguese in and Siam in The restored Toungoo kings created a legal and political framework whose basic features continued well into the 19th century.

The crown completely replaced the hereditary chieftainships with appointed governorships in the entire Irrawaddy valley and greatly reduced the hereditary rights of Shan chiefs.

Its trade and secular administrative reforms built a prosperous economy for more than 80 years. From the s onward, the kingdom was beset with repeated Meithei raids into Upper Myanmar and a nagging rebellion in Lan Na.

Hanthawaddy forces sacked Ava in , ending the year-old Toungoo Dynasty. After the fall of Ava, the Konbaung—Hanthawaddy War involved one resistance group under Alaungpaya defeating the Restored Hanthawaddy, and by he had reunited all of Myanmar and Manipur and driven out the French and the British, who had provided arms to Hanthawaddy.

With Burma preoccupied by the Chinese threat, Ayutthaya recovered its territories by and went on to capture Lan Na by Burma and Siam went to war until , but all resulted in a stalemate, exchanging Tenasserim to Burma and Lan Na to Ayutthaya.

Faced with a powerful China and a resurgent Ayutthaya in the east, King Bodawpaya turned west, acquiring Arakan , Manipur and Assam It was the second-largest empire in Burmese history but also one with a long ill-defined border with British India.

The breadth of this empire was short lived. King Mindon Min tried to modernise the kingdom and in narrowly avoided annexation by ceding the Karenni States.

The British, alarmed by the consolidation of French Indochina , annexed the remainder of the country in the Third Anglo-Burmese War in Konbaung kings extended Restored Toungoo's administrative reforms and achieved unprecedented levels of internal control and external expansion.

For the first time in history, the Burmese language and culture came to predominate the entire Irrawaddy valley.

In the 18th century Burmese rulers, whose country had not previously been of particular interest to European traders, sought to maintain their traditional influence in the western areas of Assam, Manipur and Arakan.

Pressing them, however, was the British East India Company, which was expanding its interests eastwards over the same territory.

Over the next sixty years, diplomacy, raids, treaties and compromises, known collectively as the Anglo-Burmese Wars , continued until Britain proclaimed control over most of Burma.

Throughout the colonial era, many Indians arrived as soldiers, civil servants, construction workers and traders and, along with the Anglo-Burmese community, dominated commercial and civil life in Burma.

Rangoon became the capital of British Burma and an important port between Calcutta and Singapore. Burmese resentment was strong and was vented in violent riots that paralysed Rangoon on occasion all the way until the s.

Buddhist monks became the vanguards of the independence movement. U Wisara , an activist monk, died in prison after a day hunger strike to protest against a rule that forbade him to wear his Buddhist robes while imprisoned.

He resigned from the Legislative Assembly and was arrested for sedition. Within months after they entered the war, Japanese troops had advanced on Rangoon, and the British administration had collapsed.

Wingate 's British Chindits were formed into long-range penetration groups trained to operate deep behind Japanese lines.

The battles were intense with much of Burma laid waste by the fighting. Overall, the Japanese lost some , men in Burma with 1, prisoners taken.

Under Japanese occupation, , to , civilians died. But in July , political rivals [69] assassinated Aung San and several cabinet members.

On 4 January , the nation became an independent republic, under the terms of the Burma Independence Act Unlike most other former British colonies and overseas territories, Burma did not become a member of the Commonwealth.

A bicameral parliament was formed, consisting of a Chamber of Deputies and a Chamber of Nationalities , [71] and multi-party elections were held in — , and The geographical area Burma encompasses today can be traced to the Panglong Agreement , which combined Burma Proper, which consisted of Lower Burma and Upper Burma, and the Frontier Areas, which had been administered separately by the British.

In , U Thant , the Union of Burma's Permanent Representative to the United Nations and former secretary to the prime minister, was elected Secretary-General of the United Nations , a position he held for ten years.

Between and , Myanmar was ruled by a revolutionary council headed by the general. Almost all aspects of society business, media, production were nationalised or brought under government control under the Burmese Way to Socialism , [75] which combined Soviet-style nationalisation and central planning.

A new constitution of the Socialist Republic of the Union of Burma was adopted in Until , the country was ruled as a one-party system , with the general and other military officers resigning and ruling through the Burma Socialist Programme Party BSPP.

On 7 July , the government broke up demonstrations at Rangoon University , killing 15 students. Student protests in , , and were quickly suppressed by overwhelming force.

In , unrest over economic mismanagement and political oppression by the government led to widespread pro-democracy demonstrations throughout the country known as the Uprising.

The military government finalised plans for People's Assembly elections on 31 May On 27 March , the military junta, which had moved the national capital from Yangon to a site near Pyinmana in November , officially named the new capital Naypyidaw , meaning "city of the kings".

In August , an increase in the price of fuel led to the Saffron Revolution led by Buddhist monks that were dealt with harshly by the government.

There were also rumours of disagreement within the Burmese armed forces, but none was confirmed. The military crackdown against unarmed protesters was widely condemned as part of the international reactions to the Saffron Revolution and led to an increase in economic sanctions against the Burmese Government.

In May , Cyclone Nargis caused extensive damage in the densely populated rice-farming delta of the Irrawaddy Division. In early August , a conflict broke out in Shan State in northern Myanmar.

For several weeks, junta troops fought against ethnic minorities including the Han Chinese , [86] Wa , and Kachin.

Civil wars have been a constant feature of Myanmar's socio-political landscape since the attainment of independence in These wars are predominantly struggles for ethnic and sub-national autonomy, with the areas surrounding the ethnically Bamar central districts of the country serving as the primary geographical setting of conflict.

Foreign journalists and visitors require a special travel permit to visit the areas in which Myanmar's civil wars continue.

In October , the ongoing conflicts in Myanmar included the Kachin conflict , [91] between the Pro-Christian Kachin Independence Army and the government; [92] a civil war between the Rohingya Muslims and the government and non-government groups in Rakhine State ; [93] and a conflict between the Shan , [94] Lahu , and Karen [95] [96] minority groups, and the government in the eastern half of the country.

In addition, al-Qaeda signalled an intention to become involved in Myanmar. In a video released on 3 September , mainly addressed to India, the militant group's leader Ayman al-Zawahiri said al-Qaeda had not forgotten the Muslims of Myanmar and that the group was doing "what they can to rescue you".

Armed conflict between ethnic Chinese rebels and the Myanmar Armed Forces resulted in the Kokang offensive in February The conflict had forced 40, to 50, civilians to flee their homes and seek shelter on the Chinese side of the border.

Burmese officials have been historically "manipulated" and pressured by the Chinese government throughout Burmese modern history to create closer and binding ties with China, creating a Chinese satellite state in Southeast Asia.

The goal of the Burmese constitutional referendum of , held on 10 May , is the creation of a "discipline-flourishing democracy".

As part of the referendum process, the name of the country was changed from the "Union of Myanmar" to the "Republic of the Union of Myanmar", and general elections were held under the new constitution in Observer accounts of the election describe the event as mostly peaceful; however, allegations of polling station irregularities were raised, and the United Nations UN and a number of Western countries condemned the elections as fraudulent.

The military-backed Union Solidarity and Development Party declared victory in the elections, stating that it had been favoured by 80 per cent of the votes; however, the claim was disputed by numerous pro-democracy opposition groups who asserted that the military regime had engaged in rampant fraud.

Opinions differ whether the transition to liberal democracy is underway. According to some reports, the military's presence continues as the label "disciplined democracy" suggests.

This label asserts that the Burmese military is allowing certain civil liberties while clandestinely institutionalising itself further into Burmese politics.

Such an assertion assumes that reforms only occurred when the military was able to safeguard its own interests through the transition—here, "transition" does not refer to a transition to a liberal democracy but transition to a quasi-military rule.

Since the election, the government has embarked on a series of reforms to direct the country towards liberal democracy, a mixed economy , and reconciliation, although doubts persist about the motives that underpin such reforms.

The series of reforms includes the release of pro-democracy leader Aung San Suu Kyi from house arrest, the establishment of the National Human Rights Commission , the granting of general amnesties for more than political prisoners, new labour laws that permit labour unions and strikes, a relaxation of press censorship, and the regulation of currency practices.

The impact of the post-election reforms has been observed in numerous areas, including ASEAN's approval of Myanmar's bid for the position of ASEAN chair in ; [] the visit by United States Secretary of State Hillary Clinton in December for the encouragement of further progress, which was the first visit by a secretary of state in more than fifty years, [] during which President Bill Clinton met with the Burmese president and former military commander Thein Sein , as well as opposition leader Aung San Suu Kyi; [] and the participation of Aung San Suu Kyi's NLD party in the by-elections, facilitated by the government's abolition of the laws that previously barred the NLD.

The by-elections were also the first time that international representatives were allowed to monitor the voting process in Myanmar.

General elections were held on 8 November These were the first openly contested elections held in Myanmar since The results gave the NLD an absolute majority of seats in both chambers of the national parliament, enough to ensure that its candidate would become president, while NLD leader Aung San Suu Kyi is constitutionally barred from the presidency.

It is bounded by Laos and Thailand to the southeast. In the north, the Hengduan Mountains form the border with China.

Fertile plains exist in the valleys between the mountain chains. States, in essence, are regions that are home to particular ethnic minorities.

The administrative divisions are further subdivided into districts , which are further subdivided into townships, wards , and villages.

Much of the country lies between the Tropic of Cancer and the Equator. Myanmar continues to perform badly in the global Environmental Performance Index EPI with an overall ranking of out of countries in ; among the worst in the South Asian region, only ahead of Bangladesh and Afghanistan.

The environmental areas where Myanmar performs worst ie. Myanmar performs best ie. Despite several issues, Myanmar also ranks 64 and scores very good ie.

Myanmar's slow economic growth has contributed to the preservation of much of its environment and ecosystems.

Coconut and betel palm and rubber have been introduced. In the highlands of the north, oak, pine and various rhododendrons cover much of the land.

Heavy logging since the new forestry law went into effect has seriously reduced forest acreage and wildlife habitat. In much of central Myanmar the dry zone , vegetation is sparse and stunted.

Typical jungle animals, particularly tigers, occur sparsely in Myanmar. In upper Myanmar, there are rhinoceros , wild water buffalo , clouded leopard , wild boars, deer, antelope, and elephants, which are also tamed or bred in captivity for use as work animals, particularly in the lumber industry.

Smaller mammals are also numerous, ranging from gibbons and monkeys to flying foxes. The abundance of birds is notable with over species, including parrots , myna , peafowl , red junglefowl , weaverbirds, crows, herons, and barn owl.

Among reptile species there are crocodiles , geckos , cobras , Burmese pythons , and turtles. Hundreds of species of freshwater fish are wide-ranging, plentiful and are very important food sources.

The constitution of Myanmar, its third since independence, was drafted by its military rulers and published in September The legislature, called the Assembly of the Union , is bicameral and made up of two houses: the seat upper House of Nationalities and the seat lower House of Representatives.

The upper house consists members who are directly elected and 56 who are appointed by the Burmese Armed Forces. The lower house consists of members who are directly elected and who are appointed by the armed forces.

Myanmar's army-drafted constitution was approved in a referendum in May The results, The elections of resulted in a victory for the military-backed Union Solidarity and Development Party.

Various foreign observers questioned the fairness of the elections. Myanmar's recent political history is underlined by its struggle to establish democratic structures amidst conflicting factions.

This political transition from a closely held military rule to a free democratic system is widely believed to be determining the future of Myanmar.

The resounding victory of Aung San Suu Kyi's National League for Democracy in general elections has raised hope for a successful culmination of this transition.

Myanmar rates as a corrupt nation on the Corruption Perceptions Index with a rank of th out of countries worldwide, with 1st being least corrupt, as of [update].

Though the country's foreign relations, particularly with Western nations, have historically been strained, the situation has markedly improved since the reforms following the elections.

After years of diplomatic isolation and economic and military sanctions, [] the United States relaxed curbs on foreign aid to Myanmar in November [] and announced the resumption of diplomatic relations on 13 January [] The European Union has placed sanctions on Myanmar, including an arms embargo, cessation of trade preferences , and suspension of all aid with the exception of humanitarian aid.

Sanctions imposed by the United States and European countries against the former military government, coupled with boycotts and other direct pressure on corporations by supporters of the democracy movement, have resulted in the withdrawal from the country of most U.

Despite Western isolation, Asian corporations have generally remained willing to continue investing in the country and to initiate new investments, particularly in natural resource extraction.

The country has close relations with neighbouring India and China with several Indian and Chinese companies operating in the country.

Under India's Look East policy , fields of co-operation between India and Myanmar include remote sensing , [] oil and gas exploration, [] information technology, [] hydropower [] and construction of ports and buildings.

In , India suspended military aid to Myanmar over the issue of human rights abuses by the ruling junta, although it has preserved extensive commercial ties, which provide the regime with much-needed revenue.

President Barack Obama praised the former general for political and economic reforms and the cessation of tensions between Myanmar and the United States.

Political activists objected to the visit because of concerns over human rights abuses in Myanmar, but Obama assured Thein Sein that Myanmar will receive U.

The two leaders discussed to release more political prisoners, the institutionalisation of political reform and rule of law, and ending ethnic conflict in Myanmar—the two governments agreed to sign a bilateral trade and investment framework agreement on 21 May A regional spinoff of the annual World Economic Forum in Davos , Switzerland, the summit was held on 5—7 June and attended by 1, participants, including 10 heads of state, 12 ministers and 40 senior directors from around the world.

Myanmar has received extensive military aid from China in the past. Myanmar's armed forces are known as the Tatmadaw , which numbers , The country ranked twelfth in the world for its number of active troops in service.

Official figures for military spending are not available. Estimates vary widely because of uncertain exchange rates, but Myanmar's military forces' expenses are high.

Myanmar is building a research nuclear reactor near Pyin Oo Lwin with help from Russia. The military junta had informed the IAEA in September of its intention to construct the reactor.

Until , the United Nations General Assembly annually adopted a detailed resolution about the situation in Myanmar by consensus. South Africa also voted against the resolution.

There is consensus that the former military regime in Myanmar — was one of the world's most repressive and abusive regimes. The United Nations General Assembly has repeatedly [] called on the Burmese military junta to respect human rights and in November the General Assembly adopted a resolution "strongly condemning the ongoing systematic violations of human rights and fundamental freedoms" and calling on the Burmese military regime "to take urgent measures to put an end to violations of international human rights and humanitarian law.

International human rights organisations including Human Rights Watch , [] Amnesty International [] and the American Association for the Advancement of Science [] have repeatedly documented and condemned widespread human rights violations in Myanmar.

Child soldiers had played a major part in the Burmese Army until around However, she did not comment on the government's progress towards reform in this area.

Forced labour , human trafficking , and child labour are common in Myanmar. They are mainly targeted or deceived by brokers into making them believe that better opportunities and wages exist for them abroad.

The government of Burma makes little effort to eliminate human trafficking. Burmese armed forces compel troops to acquire labour and supplies from local communities.

The U. State Department reported that both the government and Tatmadaw were complicit in sex and labour trafficking. They are forced into prostitution, marriages, and or pregnancies.

The Rohingya people have consistently faced human rights abuses by the Burmese regime that has refused to acknowledge them as Burmese citizens despite some of them having lived in Burma for over three generations —the Rohingya have been denied Burmese citizenship since the enactment of a citizenship law.

Associate citizenship is given to those who cannot prove their ancestors settled in Myanmar before but can prove they have one grandparent, or pre ancestor, who was a citizen of another country, as well as people who applied for citizenship in and qualified then by those laws.

Naturalised citizenship is only given to those who have at least one parent with one of these types of Burmese citizenship or can provide "conclusive evidence" that their parents entered and resided in Burma prior to independence in Rohingya are not allowed to travel without official permission, are banned from owning land, and are required to sign a commitment to have no more than two children.

In German professor Bassam Tibi suggested that the Rohingya conflict may be driven by an Islamist political agenda to impose religious laws, [] while non-religious causes have also been raised, such as a lingering resentment over the violence that occurred during the Japanese occupation of Burma in World War II—during this time period the British allied themselves with the Rohingya [] and fought against the puppet government of Burma composed mostly of Bamar Japanese that helped to establish the Tatmadaw military organisation that remains in power as of March Since the democratic transition began in , there has been continuous violence as people have been killed and , forced to flee from their homes in the Rakhine state.

The Rohingya have been leaving the Rakhine State by boat in search for jobs in Malaysia these recent years.

Often, the boats are very small and dangerous on the open seas. An estimated , Rohingya have fled Myanmar in the last two years in fear of persecution and violence.

Over have died in recent years and over 7, have been held in detention centres even after surviving the boat trip. Starting in late , Myanmar's military and police started large-scale persecutions of Rohingya peoples in Rakhine state.

A widely publicised Burmese conflict was the Rakhine State riots , a series of conflicts that primarily involved the ethnic Rakhine Buddhist people and the Rohingya Muslim people in the northern Rakhine State —an estimated 90, people were displaced as a result of the riots.

According to the Myanmar authorities, the violence left 78 people dead, 87 injured, and thousands of homes destroyed. It displaced more than 52, people.

Media censorship was significantly eased in August following demonstrations by hundreds of protesters who wore shirts demanding that the government "Stop Killing the Press.

However, as explained by one editorial in the exiled press The Irrawaddy , this new "freedom" has caused some Burmese journalists to simply see the new law as an attempt to create an environment of self-censorship as journalists "are required to follow 16 guidelines towards protecting the three national causes:.

In July , five journalists were sentenced to 10 years in jail after publishing a report saying the country was planning to build a new chemical weapons plant.

Journalists described the imprisonment as a blow to the recently-won news media freedoms that had followed five decades of censorship and persecution.

According to the Crisis Group , [] since Myanmar transitioned to a new government in August , the country's human rights record has been improving.

Previously giving Myanmar its lowest rating of 7, the Freedom in the World report also notes improvement, giving Myanmar a 6 for improvements in civil liberties and political rights, the release of political prisoners, and a loosening of restrictions.

The government has assembled a National Human Rights Commission that consists of 15 members from various backgrounds.

The government has also relaxed reporting laws, but these remain highly restrictive. At the same time, international NGOs are mindful of the ethical quandary of how to work with the government without bolstering or appeasing it.

Following Thein Sein's first ever visit to the UK and a meeting with Prime Minister David Cameron , the Myanmar president declared that all of his nation's political prisoners will be released by the end of , in addition to a statement of support for the well-being of the Rohingya Muslim community.

In a speech at Chatham House , he revealed that "We [Myanmar government] are reviewing all cases. I guarantee to you that by the end of this year, there will be no prisoners of conscience in Myanmar.

Homosexual acts are illegal in Myanmar and can be punishable by life imprisonment. There has been speculation that Myanmar is interested in developing nuclear weapons, and that North Korea was planning to export nuclear technology to Myanmar.

Previously and currently analysed data, as well as future projections on changes caused by climate change predict serious consequences to development for all economic, productive, social, and environmental sectors in Myanmar.

Groups involved in helping Myanmar with the transition and move forward include the UN Environment Programme , Myanmar Climate Change Alliance, and the Ministry of Natural Resources and Environmental Conservation which directed in producing the final draft of the Myanmar national climate change policy that was presented to various sectors of the Myanmar government for review.

In April , it was announced that the World Bank and Myanmar would enter a full partnership framework aimed to better access to electricity and other basic services for about six million people and expected to benefit three million pregnant woman and children through improved health services.

Myanmar is one of the poorest nations in Southeast Asia, suffering from decades of stagnation, mismanagement and isolation.

The lack of an educated workforce skilled in modern technology hinders Myanmar's economy, although recent reforms and developments carried out by the new government, in collaboration with foreign countries and organisations, aim to make this a thing of the past.

Political and economic ideological struggles have affected living standards. Decades of civil war and unrest have contributed to Myanmar's current levels of poverty and lack of economic progress.

Improving basic human, social and economic infrastructure required to advance individual living standards have not received focused government efforts.

Goods travel primarily across the Thai border where most illegal drugs are exported and along the Irrawaddy River.

Railways are old and rudimentary, with few repairs since their construction in the late 19th century. In recent years, both China and India have attempted to strengthen ties with the government for economic benefit.

Many nations, including the United States and Canada, and the European Union, have imposed investment and trade sanctions on Myanmar.

The United States and European Union eased most of their sanctions in The military has the majority stakeholder position in all of the major industrial corporations of the country from oil production and consumer goods to transportation and tourism.

Under British administration, Myanmar was the second-wealthiest country in Southeast Asia. It had been the world's largest exporter of rice. Myanmar also had a wealth of natural and labour resources.

British Burma began exporting crude oil in , making it one of the earliest petroleum producers in the world.

In the s, agricultural production fell dramatically as international rice prices declined and did not recover for several decades. They destroyed the major government buildings, oil wells and mines for tungsten, tin, lead and silver to keep them from the Japanese.

Myanmar was bombed extensively by both sides. After independence, the country was in ruins with its major infrastructure completely destroyed.

The British then granted independence to the colony and handed over their plans to rebuild to the new government. After a parliamentary government was formed in , Prime Minister U Nu embarked upon a policy of nationalisation and the state was declared the owner of all land.

The government also tried to implement a poorly considered Eight-Year plan. Plans were partly financed by printing money, which led to inflation.

The catastrophic programme turned Myanmar into one of the world's most impoverished countries. By , modern varieties were planted on half of the country's ricelands, including 98 per cent of the irrigated areas.

They depend on casual labour for income. Myanmar produces precious stones such as rubies , sapphires , pearls , and jade. Thailand buys the majority of the country's gems.

Many U. Human Rights Watch has encouraged a complete ban on the purchase of Burmese gems based on these reports and because nearly all profits go to the ruling junta, as the majority of mining activity in the country is government-run.

Other industries include agricultural goods, textiles, wood products, construction materials, gems, metals, oil and natural gas. Myanmar Engineering Society has identified at least 39 locations capable of geothermal power production and some of these hydrothermal reservoirs lie quite close to Yangon which is a significant underutilised resource for electrical production.

Myanmar's Minister of Hotels and Tourism Saw Lwin has stated that the government receives a significant percentage of the income of private sector tourism services.

They are not to discuss politics with foreigners, under penalty of imprisonment and, in , the Myanmar Tourism Promotion Board issued an order for local officials to protect tourists and limit "unnecessary contact" between foreigners and ordinary Burmese people.

The most common way for travellers to enter the country is by air. At least one tourist company has successfully run commercial overland routes through these borders since According to Eleven magazine, "In the past, there were only 15 international airlines and increasing numbers of airlines have begun launching direct flights from Japan, Qatar, Taiwan, South Korea, Germany and Singapore.

The government of Myanmar has frequently been under economic sanctions by the U. Treasury Department , most recently in President Barack Obama, who announced that long-standing trade sanctions against Myanmar are to be lifted, adding, "It is the right thing to do to ensure the people of Burma see rewards from a new way of doing business, and a new government.

In March , a draft foreign investment law emerged, the first in more than 2 decades. Foreigners will no longer need a local partner to start a business in the country, and will be able to legally lease but not own property.

In December , Myanmar signed an agreement to set up its first stock exchange. First Myanmar Investment Co. The provisional results of the Myanmar Census show that the total population is 51,, There are over , registered migrant workers from Myanmar in Thailand, and millions more work illegally.

Myanmar's fertility rate as of [update] is 2. The relatively rapid decline in fertility is attributed to several factors, including extreme delays in marriage almost unparalleled among developing countries in the region , the prevalence of illegal abortions, and the high proportion of single, unmarried women of reproductive age, with These patterns stem from economic dynamics, including high income inequality, which results in residents of reproductive age opting for delay of marriage and family-building in favour of attempting to find employment and establish some form of wealth; [] the average age of marriage in Myanmar is Myanmar is ethnically diverse.

The government recognises distinct ethnic groups. There are at least different ethnolinguistic groups in Myanmar, consisting mainly of distinct Tibeto-Burman peoples, but with sizeable populations of Tai—Kadai , Hmong—Mien , and Austroasiatic Mon—Khmer peoples.

Included in this group are the Anglo-Burmese. Once forming a large and influential community, the Anglo-Burmese left the country in steady streams from onwards, principally to Australia and the UK.

It is estimated that 52, Anglo-Burmese remain in Myanmar. As of [update] , , Burmese refugees were living in refugee camps in Thailand.

Refugee camps exist along Indian, Bangladeshi and Thai borders while several thousand are in Malaysia. Conservative estimates state that there are over , minority refugees from Myanmar, with the majority being Rohingya , Karen , and Karenni are principally located along the Thai-Myanmar border.

Since , [] over 55, Burmese refugees have been resettled in the United States. The persecution of Burmese Indians , Burmese Chinese and other ethnic groups after the military coup headed by General Ne Win in led to the expulsion or emigration of , people.

Many Rohingya Muslims have fled Myanmar. Many refugees headed to neighbouring Bangladesh, including , in as a result of the King Dragon operation in Arakan.

The primary Tai—Kadai language is Shan. Mon , Palaung , and Wa are the major Austroasiatic languages spoken in Myanmar.

Since many of them are known only within small tribes around the country, they may have been lost many if not all after a few generations.

Burmese , the mother tongue of the Bamar and official language of Myanmar, is related to Tibetan and Chinese.

The earliest known inscriptions in the Burmese script date from the 11th century. It is also used to write Pali , the sacred language of Theravada Buddhism, as well as several ethnic minority languages, including Shan, several Karen dialects, and Kayah Karenni , with the addition of specialised characters and diacritics for each language.

The Burmese language incorporates widespread usage of honorifics and is age-oriented. In villages, secular schooling often takes place in monasteries.

Secondary and tertiary education take place at government schools. Many religions are practised in Myanmar. Religious edifices and orders have been in existence for many years.

The Christian and Muslim populations do, however, face religious persecution and it is hard, if not impossible, for non-Buddhists to join the army or get government jobs, the main route to success in the country.

According to census, 6. Although Hinduism is practised by 0. Several strains of Hinduism existed alongside both Theravada Buddhism and Mahayana Buddhism in the Mon and Pyu period in the first millennium, [] and down to the Pagan period 9th to 13th centuries when " Saivite and Vaishana elements enjoyed greater elite influence than they would later do.

The general state of health care in Myanmar is poor. The government spends anywhere from 0. Public hospitals lack many of the basic facilities and equipment.

The maternal mortality rate per , births for Myanmar is This is compared with The under 5 mortality rate, per 1, births is 73 and the neonatal mortality as a percentage of under 5's mortality is According to the report named "Preventable Fate", published by Doctors without Borders, 25, Burmese AIDS patients died in , deaths that could largely have been prevented by antiretroviral therapy drugs and proper treatment.

In , the estimated adult HIV prevalence rate in Myanmar was 1. The educational system of Myanmar is operated by the government agency, the Ministry of Education.

The education system is based on the United Kingdom's system after nearly a century of British and Christian presences in Myanmar.

Nearly all schools are government-operated, but there has been a recent increase in privately funded English language schools. Schooling is compulsory until the end of elementary school, approximately about 9 years old, while the compulsory schooling age is 15 or 16 at international level.

There are universities, 12 institutes, 9-degree colleges and 24 colleges in Myanmar, a total of higher education institutions.

Myanmar had a murder rate of The Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index ranked the country at number , out of countries in total.

The opium industry was a monopoly during colonial times and has since been illegally operated by corrupt officials in the Burmese military and rebel fighters, [] primarily as the basis for heroin manufacture.

Myanmar is the largest producer of methamphetamines in the world, with the majority of Ya ba found in Thailand produced in Myanmar, particularly in the Golden Triangle and northeastern Shan State, which borders Thailand, Laos and China.

A diverse range of indigenous cultures exist in Myanmar, with majority culture primarily Buddhist and Bamar.

Bamar culture has been influenced by the cultures of neighbouring countries, manifested in its language, cuisine, music, dance and theatre. The arts, particularly literature, have historically been influenced by the local form of Theravada Buddhism.

Considered the national epic of Myanmar, the Yama Zatdaw , an adaptation of India's Ramayana , has been influenced greatly by Thai, Mon, and Indian versions of the play.

In a traditional village, the monastery is the centre of cultural life. Monks are venerated and supported by the lay people.

A novitiation ceremony called shinbyu is the most important coming of age events for a boy, during which he enters the monastery for a short time.

British colonial rule introduced Western elements of culture to Myanmar. Myanmar's education system is modelled after that of the United Kingdom.

Colonial architectural influences are most evident in major cities such as Yangon. Burmese cuisine is characterised by extensive use of fish products such as fish sauce , ngapi fermented seafood and dried prawn.

Mohinga is the traditional breakfast dish and is Myanmar's national dish. Seafood is a common ingredient in coastal cities, while meat and poultry are more commonly used in landlocked cities like Mandalay.

Freshwater fish and shrimp have been incorporated into inland cooking as a primary source of protein and are used in a variety of ways, fresh, salted whole or filleted, salted and dried, made into a salty paste, or fermented sour and pressed.

Burmese cuisine also includes a variety of salads a thoke , centred on one major ingredient, ranging from starches like rice, wheat and rice noodles, glass noodles and vermicelli, to potato, ginger, tomato, kaffir lime , long bean, and lahpet pickled tea leaves.

The Lethwei , Bando , Banshay , and Pongyi thaing martial arts and chinlone are traditional sports in Myanmar. Myanmar previously hosted the games in and Burmese traditional art concepts are popular and respected by the Burmese people and people from abroad.

Burmese contemporary art has developed quite rapidly on its own terms. Artists born after the s have had greater chances of art practice outside the country.

One of the first to study western art was Ba Nyan. Together with Ngwe Gaing and a handful of other artists, they were the pioneers of western painting style.

Later on most young children learned the concepts from them. Because of Myanmar's political climate, there are not many media companies in relation to the country's population.

Some are privately owned. All programming must meet with the approval of the censorship board. The Burmese government announced on 20 August that it would stop censoring media before publication.

Following the announcement, newspapers and other outlets no longer required approved by state censors; however, journalists in the country can still face consequences for what they write and say.

For the first time in numerous decades, the publication of privately owned newspapers commenced in the country. Internet use is estimated to be relatively low compared to other countries.

During the strict censorship days, activity at internet cafes was regulated, and one blogger named Zarganar was sentenced to prison for publishing a video of destruction caused by Cyclone Nargis in ; Zarganar was released in October In regards to communications infrastructure, Myanmar is the last ranked Asian country in the World Economic Forum's Network Readiness Index NRI — an indicator for determining the development level of a country's information and communication technologies.

With countries reported on, Myanmar ranked number overall in the NRI ranking. Myanmar's first film was a documentary of the funeral of Tun Shein—a leading politician of the s, who campaigned for Burmese independence in London.

The first Burmese silent film Myitta Ne Thuya Love and Liquor in which proved a major success, despite its poor quality due to a fixed camera position and inadequate film accessories.

During the s and s, many Burmese-owned film companies made and produced several films. Many of the films produced in the early Cold War era had a strong propaganda element to them.

In the era that followed the political events of , the film industry has been increasingly controlled by the government. Film stars who had been involved in the political activities were banned from appearing in films.

The government issues strict rules on censorship and largely determines who produces films, as well as who gets academy awards. Over the years, the movie industry has also shifted to producing many lower-budget direct-to-video films.

Most of the movies produced nowadays are comedies. The graphic novel was translated into English under the title Burma Chronicles in In , a documentary about Burmese videojournalists called Burma VJ was released.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the country. For the Myanmar language, see Burmese language. For the Unicode block, see Myanmar Unicode block.

For other uses, see Burma disambiguation. Country in Southeast Asia. Show globe. Main article: Names of Myanmar. Main article: History of Myanmar.

Main articles: Prehistory of Myanmar and Migration period of ancient Burma. Main articles: Pyu city-states and Mon kingdoms.

Main articles: British rule in Burma and Burma Campaign. Main article: Post-independence Burma, — Main article: Internal conflict in Myanmar.

Main article: —12 Burmese political reforms. Main article: Geography of Myanmar. Main article: Administrative divisions of Myanmar.

Main article: Climate of Myanmar. Further information: Deforestation in Myanmar and List of protected areas of Myanmar. Main article: Wildlife of Myanmar.

Main article: Politics of Myanmar. Main article: Foreign relations of Myanmar. Main article: Armed forces of Myanmar. Main articles: Human rights in Myanmar and Internal conflict in Myanmar.

Further information: Sex trafficking in Myanmar. See also: Rohingya conflict , Myanmar anti-Muslim riots , and —17 Rohingya persecution in Myanmar. Further information: Rohingya refugee crisis.

Further information: Rohingya genocide. Main article: Rakhine State riots. Main article: Censorship in Myanmar.

Main article: Economy of Myanmar. Further information: Agriculture in Myanmar. Main article: Tourism in Myanmar. Main article: Demographics of Myanmar.

Further information: List of cities in Myanmar. Main article: List of ethnic groups in Myanmar. Main article: Languages of Myanmar.

Main article: Religion in Myanmar. Religion in Burma Myanmar Census [] [nb 3] Buddhism. Main article: Health in Myanmar. Main article: Education in Myanmar.

Further information: Crime in Myanmar. Main article: Culture of Myanmar. Main articles: Burmese contemporary art and Myanmar architecture.

Main article: Media of Myanmar. Main article: Internet in Myanmar. Main article: Cinema of Myanmar. Asia portal. The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency.

Archived from the original on 6 October Archived from the original PDF on 29 March Retrieved 3 February There remains the possibility of violent clashes in other border areas.

See Border areas. Political tension and unrest could happen at short notice. You should avoid all demonstrations and large gatherings.

See Political situation. Terrorists are likely to try to carry out attacks in Myanmar. You should remain vigilant and follow the advice of local authorities.

See Terrorism. UK health authorities have classified Myanmar as having a risk of Zika virus transmission. For information and advice about the risks associated with Zika virus, visit the National Travel Health Network and Centre website.

Urban areas, particularly Yangon and Mandalay, can experience poor air quality. See Health. Check in advance that your card will work.

See Money. Most visits to Myanmar are trouble-free. The most common types of consular assistance cases are related to lost passports, petty theft and road accidents.

If you need to contact local emergency services, call for police, for medical assistance and for the fire service. You should be aware that phone operators may not speak English.

You can only visit these posts in person and they are not contactable by phone. We continue to operate a skeleton consular service.

However, the ability of the British Embassy to provide face-to-face assistance within Myanmar is currently limited, and would be even more limited in the event that the situation deteriorates further.

In any case, consular support is largely unavailable in parts of Myanmar where embassy officials require travel permission from the Myanmar government.

Permission is not guaranteed. The Overseas Business Risk service offers information and advice for British companies operating overseas on how to manage political, economic, and business security-related risks.

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